Leroy Pine Sr.
Chief Dull Knife College
Lame Deer, Montana
Date of this release: August 3, 2007
Copyright © 2004-2007 by Chief Dull Knife College
P.O. Box 98
Lame Deer, MT 59043
Other copies of this
Cheyenne Dictionary may be purchased from
the Chief Dull Knife College books website:
A version of this dictionary, with the title of Cheyenne Student Dictionary, is available for younger student use, from the same publisher: http://www.lulu.com/cdkc
All profits from sales of this dictionary go to
the Cultural Affairs Dept. of the
Chief Dull Knife College to help
preserve the Cheyenne language.
A multimedia CD version of this Cheyenne Dictionary
may be purchased from the website above or the college bookstore:
Chief Dull Knife College Bookstore
P.O. Box 98
Lame Deer, MT 59043 U.S.A.
For information about the multimedia dictionary CD
visit Internet webpage:
Cheyenne alphabet and pronunciation guide xi
Technical terms xiii
PLEASE READ THIS:
(If you are a Cheyenne, it is probably best if you do not copy pitch marks for Cheyenne words from this dictionary. Vowels with pitch marks look like this: á, é, ó, ý, þ, ÿ, à, è, ò. The pitch marks are helpful for non-Cheyenne speakers.)
The Cheyenne language
The Cheyenne language is spoken on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana by approximately 1,200 individuals. In 2007 the average age of the youngest speakers is approximately 50.
Cheyenne is also spoken in central Oklahoma where the average age of the youngest speakers is approximately 65. There are far fewer remaining speakers of Cheyenne in Oklahoma than in Montana.
There are a handful of words which are different between the Cheyenne spoken in Oklahoma and Montana. For instance, in Montana the word for 'clock' is éše'he which originally meant 'sun' (Cheyennes traditionally told time by the position of the sun in the sky). In Oklahoma the word for 'clock' is ko'ko'êhaseo'o, literally 'ticking thing.' Both the Northern Cheyenne (Montana) and Southern Cheyenne (Oklahoma) forms of the language are found in this dictionary. We have attempted to make this a complete dictionary for Cheyennes in both Oklahoma and Montana.
Speakers in either location are welcome to modify the spellings of words to fit preferred alphabets. We have included the spellings of some words (for example, see hetóéva, taa'þva, tséxhestáotsêse, no'ka, na'ha, náhkohe, hohpe) using an alphabet developed by Lenora Hart Holliman of Oklahoma. Some Oklahoma speakers use the Holliman spelling system. Others prefer the alphabet used in this dictionary, developed by Rodolphe Petter in Oklahoma in the late 1800s.
The grammar (morphosyntax) of Cheyenne spoken in Oklahoma and Montana is identical as is the phonology (sound system). Research for this dictionary took place both in Oklahoma and Montana. This is not a dictionary of a Northern Cheyenne language. It is a dictionary of the Cheyenne language, as it is spoken in both Oklahoma and Montana.
Cheyenne is a western member of the large Algonquian language family, of which some other member languages are Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cree, Delaware, Fox, Ojibwa, Menominee, and Massachusett.
This Cheyenne dictionary
This is an important time to have a new dictionary of the Cheyenne language available as a resource tool. Today the average age of the youngest fluent speakers of Cheyenne is approximately 50. There are, of course, some younger speakers, but not many children today are learning Cheyenne as their first language. But faithful efforts continue to teach some of the Cheyenne language in elementary, junior high, and high schools on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, as well as at Chief Dull Knife College on the reservation. And, most importantly, some parents and grandparents are speaking Cheyenne to children. There are also Cheyenne language programs in schools in Cheyenne areas of Oklahoma.
A number of Cheyenne leaders and parents are concerned that the Cheyenne language is not being spoken so much by younger people today as it used to be. There is a fear that unless parents and grandparents teach more of Cheyenne to the children, and unless the school language learning programs are more successful, the Cheyenne language will die out in a few generations. Because of this, there is often a call for programs to help Cheyennes who do not speak the Cheyenne language to learn more of the language. Many Cheyennes have found maintaining the language or learning it to be an important part of being a Cheyenne. This dictionary can be part of this effort to keep the Cheyenne language alive, or at least to be a reference tool for future generations to learn about the beauty of this language and how its words are pronounced.
There is more work yet to be done on this dictionary, but people will still find it helpful to have this material which is more than what is available in the English-Cheyenne Student Dictionary (1976) and the Cheyenne Topical Dictionary (1984). This new dictionary is special in that there is a multimedia CD format which has many of the Cheyenne words pronounced clearly so that people can not only see how a word is spelled and what it means, but also hear how it sounds. Hearing words clearly is an important part of learning a language. In the CD dictionary click on a pronunciation button to hear a Cheyenne word. There are two pronunciation buttons. One is at the top of the Lexique Pro screen named "Pronounce" and the other button is any yellow speaker icon.
How to find words in this dictionary
This dictionary is arranged in alphabetical order according to the first letter of the Cheyenne entry. You can jump from one section of the dictionary to another by using the First letter index located at the beginning of each beginning letter section of the dictionary. When using the CD, just click on the first letter of an entry you wish to find and your program should quickly take you to the beginning of that section.
Many dictionary entries are parts of Cheyenne words called morphemes ("blocks") or roots. Most of these partial word entries also include complete Cheyenne words as examples. There is also a separate English index to the Cheyenne words in the dictionary.
Most nouns will be fairly easy to locate in this dictionary, because they can be pronounced by themselves. For instance, the Cheyenne word for 'pemmican' is ame and it will be found in the section of words starting with the letter "a".
Parts of speech called particles should also be easy to locate. For instance, if you know that the Cheyenne word for 'twice' is nexa, you can find this word in the section of words beginning with the letter "n".
Verbs are more difficult to find in this dictionary because they usually appear with at least one prefix. For example, all fluent Cheyenne speakers know these three Cheyenne words:
Námésehe 'I am eating'
Némésehe 'You are eating'
Émésehe 'He (or She) is eating'
We could have each of these complete words occur separately in the dictionary. But if we did that for these first, second, and third person singular subject verbs, maybe we should also have dictionary entries for eating verbs which have plural subjects, such as:
Námésêhéme 'We (exclusive) are eating'
Némésêhéme 'You (plural) are eating'
Émésêheo'o 'They are eating'
And we could add dictionary entries for when eating verbs have the 'not' meaning as in:
Násáamésêhéhe 'I did not eat'
Ésáamésêhéheo'o 'They did not eat'
And, to be complete, we would need entries for eating verbs which are dependent (conjunct), such as:
tséhmésêhéto 'when I ate'
tséhméseese 'when he (or she) ate'
It can be seen that if we had an entry for every possible eating verb, as well as every other verb, soon the dictionary would be too big to be printed, and perhaps not easily used.
So, instead of putting in a form of each verb for every possible person (first, second, and third), and singular and plural, and independent and dependent, and negatives, and question forms, and several other forms of verbs, in this dictionary we just put one form of a verb that means 'eat,' and only one form of a verb that means 'dream, etc. To find the verb entry for 'eat' in this dictionary, you must strip off all prefixes and suffixes, getting down to the smallest part of the verb that means 'eat,' which is –mésehe, located in the section of the dictionary which has words (and word parts) that start with the letter "m." This has the advantage of saving space in the dictionary so that it can be of a reasonable size, not with millions of verbs which are different only by having different person combinations, or singular or plural, etc.
Another advantage of locating verbs in the dictionary according to their smallest meaning part is that these verb entries (called verb stems) will be located near any nouns which have that same meaning part. For instance, the verb stem –mésehe 'eat' will appear near the Cheyenne word for 'food,' which is mésêhestôtse. Finally, another advantage of entering verbs using just their stems, not prefixes, suffixes, or other modifiers, is that for many verbs, the entry in the dictionary will be the complete verb form, when you are saying a command to more than one person. For instance, if you need to find the verb entry for 'sleep,' you need to look under –naóotse which is the smallest part (stem) of a word that means 'sleep.' And this verb stem can be pronounced by itself to tell a group of people, "Naóotse!" meaning 'Go to sleep!'
So, if you are a speaker of Cheyenne and want to find how to spell a verb, do not look under ná- (first person) if you are looking for a verb that you are pronouncing at the beginning of the word with ná-. Instead, look for the verb beginning with the first letter of the part of the verb which actually has the central meaning of the verb itself. If you want to find how to spell the word pronounced as émane 'he is drinking,' do not look under words beginning with the letter "e." Instead, take off the prefix that means 'he' and look for the verb under dictionary entries that begin with the letter "m." Among those dictionary entries you will find –mane, which means 'drink.'
Pitch marks (usually not for Cheyenne speakers)
You will notice pitch marks on some of the words, for instance, the word for 'fly (insect)' in this dictionary is spelled as hése. The pitch mark on the first "e" shows that this "e" has a high pitch or tone. If you already speak Cheyenne, you probably should not write the pitch marks. You may find them confusing. It is all right if you just ignore the pitch marks in this dictionary. But the pitch marks cannot be ignored by non-speakers of the language who wish to pronounce Cheyenne words correctly. If you are copying words from this dictionary to be used for a newspaper article, your car license plate, an obituary, or to write down the name of any of your relatives, you will not need to write pitch marks. This will make things easier for newspaper people and others to print Cheyenne words. If you are copying words for a newspaper article or obituary, feel free to substitute the letters "sh" for the Cheyenne letter "š." They have the same sound. Most newspapers or other printing places are not able to print special symbols like "š" very easily, if at all.
This dictionary belongs to the Cheyenne people. It may be copied without permission from the copyright holder if copies are used by enrolled Cheyennes. For legal purposes, to protect this dictionary for the Cheyenne people of Montana and Oklahoma, we will place a copyright notice on this dictionary. This is a legal notice, and it shows that this dictionary belongs to the Cheyenne people. No one, including enrolled Cheyennes, may sell this dictionary for profit without permission from the the copyright holder, Chief Dull Knife College. No one may print this dictionary for sale without permission from the copyright holder.
Mr. Leman, the linguist who helped make this dictionary, first began studying the Cheyenne language in Oklahome in 1971. Over the years, many Cheyennes taught him their language. He especially thanks the following who spent many hours teaching him the Cheyenne language so that we could have this new Cheyenne dictionary: Maude Fightingbear, Louise Fisher, Josephine Glenmore, Aline Killsontop, Dr. Richard Littlebear, Harry Littlebird, Happy Old Crow, Gladys Old Mouse, Leroy Pine Sr., Ted Risingsun, Marie Sanchez, Henry Scalpcane, James Shoulderblade, Elaine Strangeowl, and Joe Walksalong Sr. Many others helped by talking Cheyenne with him, allowing him to hear words which went into this dictionary. He says a special thank you to each Cheyenne who patiently pronounced words which were recorded for the sound files in this dictionary. Future generations of Cheyennes will be grateful for the careful work they have done pronouncing words for this dictionary. To each of these language teachers, as well as many other Cheyennes, he says, "Néá'êšemeno (Thank you)! I am very grateful for you teaching me your language, but I am even more grateful that you opened your hearts to me and taught me how to be a better person."
Thank you to the Cheyenne college, Chief Dull Knife College, for funding which was used to pay Cheyennes to pronounce words for the sound files in this dictionary.
Thank you, also, to the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for a 2004-2005 fiscal year Phillips Fund grant which paid most of the remaining wages of Cheyennes who worked on this dictionary.
Mr. Leman did not receive any special funding to work on this dictionary. Instead, his work with the Cheyenne language is supported by his personal donors, who are family, friends, and churches. He is grateful to these donors. May Ma'heo'o (God) bless them for their help.
Toolbox dictionary program
The data in this dictionary was managed and formatted for viewing by the Shoebox and Toolbox computer programs. Toolbox (and its predecessor, Shoebox) is a good program which is especially designed for managing dictionary databases. We are indebted to the Shoebox and Toobox programmers. A special thanks to Shoebox and Toolbox technicians who have helped me work with these programs. Information about Shoebox, including how to purchase the program, is available from Internet webpage: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/
Toolbox, the successor to Shoebox, is available as a free download from:
Toolbox can use a dictionary database produced by Shoebox.
Lexique Pro display program
If you are viewing this Cheyenne dictionary on a computer using the Lexique Pro program, you may get further information about this dictionary display program from Internet webpage: www.lexiquepro.com.
Lexique Pro is available as a free download. It nicely displays dictionary data which has been formatted by the Shoebox or Toolbox programs.
Many languages have words which are considered inappropriate to say, at least in certain social settings. Sometimes these are called taboo words. Cheyenne has a number of words which are not to be spoken by certain groups of people or when certain relatives are near, or in groups of mixed men and women. Some of these words have to do with ceremonies. Others have to do with certain parts of the body, or words having to do with excretion or intercourse. After consulting with Cheyenne elders, we have attempted to show respect for Cheyenne culture in this dictionary by not including sound files of Cheyenne taboo words. Taboo words are included in this dictionary, but a version without taboo words will be available for use by school children. To purchase the print version for school children, use this webpage:
Cheyenne nouns and verbs often indicate whether the person or persons involved with those words are "I," (first person) "you," (second person) or "he, she, or it" (third person), and also whether there is one person (singular) or more than one person (plural). Charts showing combinations of these persons and singular or plural are called paradigms. There are paradigms of nouns and verbs located in certain entries in this dictionary. The term "conjunct" is used by Algonquianists (Cheyenne is a member of the Algonquian language family) to refer to subordinate verbs. See the following dictionary entries for these paradigms:
Animate Intransitive (AI) verbs: -mane 'drink'
Noun possession: mâheo'o 'house'
Conjunct AI verbs: -homosé 'cook'
Conjunct AI verbs: tséhéto 'what I said'
Conjunct participles (AI): tséhéhéto 'the one who is my father'
Modes: -hoo'e 'be at'
In some ways, work on dictionaries is never done. But we are trying to make this dictionary as complete and accurate as possible. We know that there are some mistakes which we have not yet found in the dictionary, and we want to fix these mistakes. And there are more Cheyenne words which are not yet in the dictionary and more sound files which could be recorded. So please let us know about any changes needed in this dictionary so future editions of this dictionary can be even better. You can contact us by mail, email, or telephone. Comments and questions about this dictionary can be mailed to:
Cheyenne Dictionary Project
P.O. Box 50
Busby, MT 59016
Telephone (406) 592-3573 or (509) 328-0394
Comments can emailed to: CheyenneLanguage@vfemail.net
Please do not contact us with general questions about the Cheyenne language. Instead, please try to get answers to such questions from the Cheyenne Language Web Site:
Please do not contact Mr. Leman to order Cheyenne language material. Mr. Leman does not have these materials for sale. Instead, contact the Chief Dull Knife College bookstore or one of the other sources listed at Internet webpage:
You can order this dictionary and other Cheyenne language materials directly from the publisher (saving yourself bookstore markup costs) at these webpages:
Copyright of this dictionary is held by the Cheyenne people through their college, Chief Dull Knife College, in Lame Deer, Montana. The linguist, Mr. Leman, owns no part of this dictionary. He will never receive any profits from sales of this dictionary.
Cheyenne alphabet and pronunciation guide
There are only 14 letters in the Cheyenne alphabet but they combine to create some very long words, composed of many smaller meaning parts. This alphabet was designed by the Mennonite missionary, Rodolphe Petter, when he began study of the Cheyenne language in Oklahoma at the end of the 19th century. This alphabet fits the sounds and patterns of the Cheyenne language very well. The letter "z" was used in the Petter alphabet to represent the "ts" sound, because Mr. Petter spoke German which uses the letter "z" for that sound. In the early 1970s a Cheyenne committee working with linguist Danny Alford and the bilingual education program in the Lame Deer, Montana, schools, changed the "z" to the two English letters "ts." We can call the alphabet used in this dictionary the Petter Alphabet, or Modified Petter Alphabet.
Following are some words illustrating the Cheyenne alphabet and a pronunciation guide for the Cheyenne letters. Many other words are found in the Cheyenne Sounds booklet, our online dictionary, Internet word lists, and other pages at the Cheyenne Language Web Site.
LETTER CHEYENNE ENGLISH CHEYENNE LETTER PRONUNCIATION
a mahpe water a as in English "father"
e ehane our father e as in English "stick"
h hese fly h as in English "happy"
k kosa goat k as in English "skip"
' he'eo'o women - as in English "Uh-oh!"
m me'ko head m as in English "man"
n nahkohe bear n as in English "never"
o okohke crow o as in English "note"
p poeso cat p as in English "spoon"
s semo boat s as in English "say"
š še'še duck š (sh) as in English "shirt"
t tosa'e Where? t as in English "stop"
v vee'e tepee v as in English "vein"
x xao'o skunk x as in German "Achtung!"
The š symbol has the same sound as the two English letters "sh". The apostrophe (') stands for the glottal stop, a very frequent letter in Cheyenne. It is the quick stopping "sound" between the two syllables of the English exclamation, "Uh-oh!" Cheyenne "x" has the same sound as German "x". It is a voiceless velar fricative, raspier than English "h". When Cheyenne "v" comes before an "a" or "o" vowel, it will often sound like English "w". It is still the same sound unit (phoneme), however, whether it is pronounced as "v" or "w". The Cheyenne "stop" sounds, "p", "t", and "k" are unaspirated. That is, they do not have a puff of air after them as these letters do when they begin English words, such as "pen," "toy", and "kite." Instead, they sound like the letters "p", "t", and "k" when they follow the letter "s," as in the English words "spill," "still," and "skill." The unaspirated p, t, and k sound to many Cheyenne ears as the English letters b, d, and g. The difference between them is that the vocal cords are vibrating when b, d, and g are pronounced. But in Cheyenne the vocal cords are not vibrating when p, t, and k are pronounced as in the word nahkohe 'bear.'
There are three Cheyenne vowels (a, e, o). They can be marked for high pitch (á, é, ó), mid pitch (ý, þ, ÿ; ä, ë, ö; or à, è, ò) or be voiceless (whispered), as in â, ô, and ê. In the Lexique Pro program the mid-pitch vowels are either marked with an umlaut, like this: ä, ë, ö, or with a grave accent, like this: à, è, ò.
If you are a Cheyenne speaker, it is probably best if you do not copy the pitch marks from this dictionary. For anyone, if you are putting Cheyenne words on signs or in a newspaper, do not copy the pitch marks.
Spelling systems compared:
The Modified Petter spellings are the spellings found throughout this dictionary, using the Cheyenne alphabet which has been adopted by the Northern Cheyenne Tribal Council. The Holliman spellings are from Lenora Hart Holliman of Weatherford, Oklahoma. They are found in a booklet she helped produce in approximately 1976, titled Ni Zhi Si Ni Ss Zi meaning 'I talk Cheyenne.' The Simplified spellings are spellings which some people have used or might use to write the words. They might appear on license plates of cars belonging to Cheyennes. Simplified spellings are included for some words in this dictionary. There are different kinds of simplified spellings which have been used.
Meaning Modified Petter spelling Holliman spelling Simplified spelling
one no'ka no ga no'ga
two nexa ni khi nixa
three na'ha na ha na'ha
year aa'e ah i aa'i
night taa'eva dii i vi daa'ifa
evening hetoeva hi doi vi hidoifa
my child naneso nii niss sso naniso
your child neneso ni niss sso niniso
bear nahkohe na go nago
bears nahkôheo'o na ko yoo nakoyo'o
hawk aenohe ii noo ainoh
hawks aenôheo'o ii nho yoo ainhoyo'o
cat poeso boi sso boiso
turtle ma'eno ma i no ma'ino
sun eše'he i sshi i ishi'
trees hoohtseto ho zi do hoozido
rattlesnake xamaeše'šenovôtse khi mi sshi no vo zi
house mâheo'o mha yoo mhayo'o
Sometimes you may see a technical word used in this dictionary which you do not understand. Here are explanations for some of these words:
obviative = the spelling that a word takes when it is a third person object of a verb which has a subject which is also third person. For instance, we say návóómo hetane 'I saw a man' with the regular spelling of hetane meaning 'man'. But we say évóomóho hetanóho 'He saw a man' with the obviative spelling for 'man' because it is the object of the verb 'see' which has a third person subject (either a 'he' or 'she').
oblique=the spelling of a noun when it is used as a location or instrument used to do something. For instance, mahpe means 'water' but when we add the oblique suffix we say mâhpeva meaning 'in the water'.
conjunct=the spelling of a verb where all its information about persons is in suffixes. For instance, námésehe means 'I ate' (or 'I am eating'). It is an independent verb. We can say it by itself. But tséhmésêhéto means 'when I ate.' This is a conjunct (or dependent) verb. It cannot be said by itself. We must say some other verb along with it.
na = noun animate
ni = noun inanimate
poss = possessive
vai = verb animate (subject) intransitive
vii = verb inanimate (subject) intransitive
vta = verb animate (object) transitive
vti = verb inanimate (object) transitive
cj = conjunct order
ppl = participle
p = particle
pv = preverb
i = initial
fai = final animate intransitive
fta = final transitive animate
fna = final noun animate
m = medial
mbp = medial body part
attrib. = attributive (hearsay) mode
pret. = preterit mode
an. = animate
inan. = inanimate
sg. = singular
pl. = plural
incl. = inclusive (first person plural, including person(s) spoken to)
excl. = exclusive (first person plural, not including person(s) spoken to)
obv = obviative (out of focus third person)
loc = locative
obl = oblique
obv = obviative
s.t. = something
s.o. = someone
Assim = assimilated
Contract = contracted
NonContract = non-contracted
Redup = reduplication
NonRedup = non-reduplicated
IndepNoun = independent noun
Ant = antonym
Syn = synonym
Dim = diminutive
NonDim = non-diminutive
Fem = feminine
Masc = masculine
Ch. = Cheyenne
PA = Proto-Algonquian
esp. = especially
fig. = figuratively
lit. = literally
od = Oklahoma Dialect
mt = Montana Dialect
hs = Holliman spelling (in Oklahoma)
ss = Simplified Spelling
ps = Precise Spelling
PD = Petter's dictionary
PG = Petter's grammar
Cheyenne-English Bilingual Institute. No date (ca. 1976). Ni Zhi Si Ni Ss Zi. (Weatherford, OK: U.S. Office of Education program 0-74-8617, directed by Dr. Bill Berlin.) (This booklet uses the alphabet developed by Lenora Hart Holliman.)
Croft, Kenneth, ed. 1988. Cheyenne Ribaldry: Texts by William Guerrier and Others. Algonquian and Iroquoian Linguistics 13.
English-Cheyenne Student Dictionary. 1976. Lame Deer, Montana: Language Research Department, Northern Cheyenne Title VII ESEA Bilingual Education Program.
Glenmore, Josephine Stands In Timber, and Wayne Leman. 1984. Cheyenne Topical Dictionary. Busby, Montana: Cheyenne Translation Project.
Goddard, Ives. 1978. The Sutaio dialect of Cheyenne: A discussion of the evidence. In, Papers of the Ninth Algonquian Conference, ed. by William Cowan, pp. 68-80.
Goddard, Ives. 1988. Pre-Cheyenne *y. In, In Honor of Mary Haas. From the Haas Festival Conference on Native American Linguistics, ed. by William Shipley. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 345-60.
Goddard, Ives. 2000. The Historical Origins of Cheyenne Inflections. In, Papers of the Thirty-First Algonquian Conference, ed. by John D. Nichols, pp. 77-129. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.
Grinnell, George Bird. 1923. The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Ways of Life. 2 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press. (Reprinted, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1972.)
Hayden. F.V. 1862. Chapter VI: "III. Shyennes. Ethnographical History," Chapter VII: Remarks on the Grammatical Structure of the Shyenne Language," Chapter VIII: Vocabulary of the Shyenne Language." In, Contributions to the Ethnography and Philology of the Indian Tribes of the Missouri Valley. Philadelphia, PA: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, Vol. 12. Pp. 274-320.
Leman, Wayne. 1980a. A Reference Grammar of the Cheyenne Language. Vols. 1 and 2. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Linguistics Series No. 5. Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley (80639). (Slightly updated version of earlier Cheyenne Grammar Notes, 1979.) (No longer available from UNC. Order from CCEP, Box 50, Busby, MT 59016.)
Leman, Wayne, editor. 1980b. Cheyenne Texts: An Introduction to Cheyenne Literature. Publications in Anthropology, Series No. 6. Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Pages ix + 92. (No longer available from UNC. Order at $8 plus postage from CCEP, Box 50, Busby, MT 59016.)
Leman, Wayne. 1981. Cheyenne Pitch Rules. International Journal of American Linguistics. 47:283-309.
Leman, Wayne. 1987. Cheyenne Obviation Pitch Alternations. In, Papers of the Thirty-First Algonquian Conference, ed. William Cowan, pp. 173-186. Ottawa: Carleton University.
Leman, Wayne, ed. 1987. Náévâhóó'ôhtséme / We Are Going Back Home: Cheyenne History and Stories Told by James Shoulderblade and Others. Memoir 4. Winnipeg: and Iroquoian Linguistics.
Leman, Wayne, and Richard Rhodes. 1978. Cheyenne Vowel Devoicing. In, Papers of the Ninth Algonquian Conference, ed. William Cowan, pp. 3-24. Ottawa: Carleton University.
Olson, Donald. 1968. Cheyenne Texts and Grammar Notes. Mimeographed ms. (On deposit at the Library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA, as research results of a Phillips Fund grant from the APS.)
Petter, Rodolphe. 1915. English-Cheyenne Dictionary. Kettle Falls, Wash.
Petter, Rodolphe. 1952. Cheyenne Grammar. Newton, Kansas: Mennonite Publication Office.
Smith, William B.S. 1949. Some Cheyenne Forms. Studies in Linguistics 7:77-85.
For a list of Cheyenne language materials and where they may be purchased, go to Internet address:
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